The presentation of the material. Modern domestic psycholinguists identified "linguistic personality" with a person who owns a complex of abilities and characteristics that make the creation and perception of his/her texts (statements) that differ in the degree of the structural-linguistic complexity and depth and accuracy of reflection reality [8, p. 76]. So, with the person who carries out effective primary and secondary textual activity.
The textual activity is characterized by dynamism, structuring, motivation, the correlation of internal and external plans. Some scientists, absolute activities of the recipient, who represent it as dependent on many factors of an integral system by "the reception and processing... textual information, containing in its composition, a number of functional blocks: touch, mnemonic, colloquially-motor, intellectual-cognitive [7, p. 1]", but the majority – as the exchange of actions and generating and interpreting the texts. So, textual activity is a two-component structure with interdependent and interrelated links: the coding of information (production of oral, written text) provides primary textual activity, and decoding – the secondary one. Productive types of speech activity (speaking and writing) are correlated with the primary textual activity, and receptive (reading and listening) – with a secondary.
The results of scientific studies have shown that the implementation of
secondary textual activity – specific process, which model is significantly different from the primary textual activity. It includes such steps: 1) orientation in the situation of communication; 2) understanding and strengthening of General structure’s of consciousness of the text; 3) awareness of contents’ details of the text, language elements and peculiarities of their use, a comparison with their own ideas about the addressee and (4) check of the results perception of speech in accordance with the purpose [1; 5].
In the course of secondary textual activity by the means, which manage the cognitive activity of the recipient and stimulate its association are dominated. That is, the effectiveness of listening and reading to a large extent is due to intellectual processes of a person. Receptive types of speech activity occur according to the scheme of perception → interpretation → understanding, which creates conditions for subsequent coding of learned information in the process of communication. So, it is the quality of perception which depends on the level of understanding.
Pay attention to the fact that the secondary textual activity excludes mechanical, passive reflection of the reality in spite of the fact that it is directly connected with the anticipation – reading).
Perception is not actually sensor by nature, and represents a complex emotional and intellectual processes of transformation visual and acoustic verbal code as the material of the shell message to the inner meaning. The creative activity recipient in logical process of information provides a mechanism anticipation (forecasting).
The codes that are involved in the secondary textual activity, similar to those used in the primary textual activity, – the universal objective and mixed figurative language. But the mechanism opposite to textual is used. When statements enter domestic broadcasting of a man, codes work at curtailing of speech utterances to the original scheme: release of key thoughts and text necessarily undergoes compression – compression up to "semantic bunch" (after M. Zhynkin) or a complex of meanings. In modern scientific thought of this kind of concentrated semantic education was called "the concept". In other words, the recipient is moving from the text to the concept. Taking the meaning from the statements and absorbing it, the recipient always adds to the vision
the interpretation. An important role in the adequate interpretation of the concept is played by context (in a wide sense) and presupposition – shared fund of knowledge of the producer and the recipient.
The concept can be stored in long-term memory of the person only under condition of identification of mental image in the consciousness that is
understanding. Otherwise it will be lost. So understanding ensures in the process of speaking and writing further recovery-the deployment of concept (the set of concepts) to the size of liaison of statements with the preservation of the General primary sense, but always with the elements of their own creative work and is therefore always in a different form. The last remark is especially significant: to understand the text, we must briefly transfer its contents in their own words. Mechanical reproduction "word" cannot be considered as a measure of understanding.
The semantic structure of the text – hierarchical education, in which we follow I. Zymna [4, p. 5–33], distinguish four levels: an understanding of the common themes, sub-themes, awareness of peculiarities of form and content, the implication (goals). So, the process of understanding is a positive result of the complex perceptive and imaginative mind and mnemonic activities, which is the product of the interaction between the processes of perception, thinking and memory [3, p. 247], [4, p. 5]. So the success of the students’ acquiring of secondary textual activity on the lessons of the Ukrainian language depends on the formation of a number of
- be guided in a situation of communication;
- focus on the text that is perceived on hearing or visually;
- define the purpose of own secondary textual activity and purpose of the author;
- predict the content and structure of the text even beyond the minimal elements (the beginning of the proposals, the heading, etc.), inherent in the statements of certain types;
- "turn" the overall meaning of the text: find the key words, be a question, a simple/complex plan, an abstract to make thematic extracts; display the heard (the read) in the form of the algorithm, attractions, tables, schemes, etc.;
- to analyze the structure and content of the text: identify composite components; the General topic, subtopic, mikrothemes, thematic proposal, the main idea; the type and genre of the utterance, stylistic peculiarities, to explain the use of the language means;
- exercise self-control over the results and the quality of secondary textual activity.
Development of these skills should be the subject of a thorough systematic work, including the aspectual lessons of the Ukrainian language, which will help to avoid a formal approach to the development of the receptive (listening, reading) textual skills of the students.
The basis for the understanding there is always intellectual analytical activity, but it is born as a result parts’ combination into an organic whole, which provides a synthesis. So, in our opinion,
the receptive skills of students as an integral part of their textual abilities and skills
based on: 1) basic knowledge (about the environment and result); knowledge on the means of communication words in a sentence, the proposals as parts of a complex syntactic constructions, inter-phrase connection in the text; features texts of different types and genres; 2) skill and practice to choose the optimal type of cutting the perceived information; contain in auditory/visual memory fragments statements; to carry out forecasting of its contents; analyze the content and structure; allocate in its essential parts, key words; create verbal-logical scheme of a conceptual plan of statements by synthesis.
Moreover, take into account the fact that inner speech of younger adolescents (11 years old) is already fully formed. This creates additional favorable natural conditions for the improvement of mechanisms textual perception.
Conclusions. So, mastering of secondary textual activity is an extremely important direction of work with the speech of the development of personality. As a result, students acquire the skills to implement receptive types of speech activity (listening and reading), without which it is impossible to effectively analyze, reproduce, create and edit texts. The success of the secondary textual activity depends on the formation of complex skills (perceive, interpret and understand the text). They have a complex integral nature and are conditioned by the psycho physiological, psycholinguistic factors: age peculiarities of adolescents, degree of maturity of their world view and the level of subject of knowledge, as well as formed motivational, cognitive and emotional spheres. So, the basis of the development of receptive skills of the students is to increase their motivation, cognitive activity and the degree of independence. We consider education in the 5-9-graders stable internal demand in the textual activity not less important problem and knowledge of the means of the native language, linguistic intuition and aesthetic attitude to the language.
Perspectives of the research. Such conclusions are doing our research on the further development of coherent lingvodidactic models for the formation about textual skills of pupils of 5-9 forms, which involves: firstly, the obligatory accounting of the above-mentioned psycholinguistic framework; secondly, the systematic use of textual basis of Ukrainian direction for all types of the textual activity; thirdly, the comprehensive implementation of language, speech, socio-cultural and activity of meaningful lines; fourthly, methodically effective combination of traditional and modern teaching methods.
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3. Залевская А. А. Введение в психолингвистику / А. А. Залевская. – М. : Изд-во Российского государственного гуманитарного университета, 1999. – С. 244–253.
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5. Иваницкая Г. М. Уроки развития связной речи: пособие для учителя / Г. М. Иваницкая. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – К. : Рад. школа, 1990. – 224 с.
6. Караулов Ю. Н. Русский язык и языковая личность / Ю. Н. Караулов. − 6-е изд. – М. : Изд-во ЛКИ, 2007. – 264 с.
7. Касьянова В. Г. Обучение иноязычной текстовой деятельности в области международного права [Електоронный ресурс] / В. Г. Касьянова // Вісник Харківського національного університету ім. В. Н. Каразіна. – 2011. – № 972. – 8 с. – Режим доступу до статті : http://www.nbuv.gov.ua /Portal/natural/VKhNU/Rgf/2011_972/11kvgomp.pdf – версія документу від 06.07.2012.
8. Психологія мовлення і психолінгвістика : навч. посіб. для студ. вищ. навч. закл. / Л. О. Калмикова, Г. В. Калмиков, І. М. Лапишина, Н. В. Марченко ; за заг. ред. Л. О. Калмикової. – К. : Переяслав-Хмельницький пед. ін-т; "Фенікс", 2008. – 235 с.
9. Языковая личность [Электронный ресурс] // Психология общения. Энциклопедический словарь Под общ. ред. А. А. Бодалева. – М. : Изд-во "Когито-Центр", 2011. – Режим доступа к словарной статье : http://vocabulary.ru/dictionary/1095/word/jazykovaja-lichnost.
Doctor of Science, Pedagogics,
(Kharkiv National University of Economics)
SOME PECULIARITIES OF HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENT ENGLISH TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY IN
THE CONTEXT OF MODERN SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT
Introduction. The aim of National strategy concerning social development for the next decade is as follows: the provision of qualitative competitive education for Ukrainian citizens meeting the requirements of innovative stable social and economic development, as well as personality development in accordance with one’s individual aptitude, abilities and demands in a lifelong learning mode . Under such circumstances the requirements to educationalists are expected to be stricter, especially to higher educational establishment research and teaching staff who prepare future professionals in all fields of economy. Thus, modernization of education is impossible without constant analysis of participants’ activities involved in the educational process which, to a great extent, reflects the level of their professional development. Hence, the issues of research and teaching staff effective professional skills formation and updating remain of interest. Considering the above mentioned facts, it is reasonable to study general characteristics of professional academic staff activity, English language teachers in particular, to specify some key factors of their development.
Literature review. Psychological and humanistic aspects of a personality have been studied in the works of the following scientists: A. Adler, V. Davydov, O. Leontiev, A. Maslow, L. Rogers, S. Rubinstein, G. Shchedrovitsky. Noteworthy the development of approaches to the personality’s formation as a subject of its own topical activity and self-development which has been reviewed in the works of K. Abulkhanova-Slavska, B. Ananev, E. Bondarevska. The essence of educational work has been studied by such scholars as V. Blum, N. Bordovska, A. Rean, O. Galus, N. Guziy, T. Guskey, I. Zymnya, N. Kuzmina, A. Kuzminskiy, Z. Kurlyand, B. Lomov, A. Markova, V. Semychenko, V. Slastyonin, especially foreign language teachers – S. Nikolaeva, N. Tuchina and others. Despite a wide range of scientific papers, this problem remains scantily researched concerning the definition of professional research and teaching staff’s activity, teachers of foreign languages in particular, in modern context of society development.
The aim, tasks and methods of the work. The aim is the structural and functional analysis of professional higher educational establishment research and teaching staff activity, especially English language teachers. The tasks are to define and describe the components of professional research and teaching staff activity under modern conditions of society development, to distinguish specific functions of an English language teacher. Theoretical analysis furnished the basis of this research next to some educational experiments which have been conducted. The work has been fulfilled according to the S&R plan of Kharkiv National University of Economics.
Research findings. Social conditions define the surroundings that stipulate professional conduct of research and teaching staff, regulate their purposeful actions. Any society has to realize its educational and educative functions. Research and teaching staff contribute to meeting the society demands, actively participating in the creation of certain basic social relations and hence enabling their further development. Research and teaching work is a process that unites members of the society, the information interchange being indirect and controlled, while culture is being recreated and upbuilt, social awareness is being established, thus carrying out the academic regulation of social development process. Society needs stimulate the creativity of teachers, becoming the driving force of their development.
At present, the information revolution has led to the emergence of information society, whose next phase is knowledge society, where knowledge and information will be transformed into the most important factors of social development. Let us note, that today the developed countries whose economy is being gradually evolved on the basis of knowledge, create millions of jobs related to the use of new knowledge in the newly emerged directions. As V. Sergeev stated, fundamentally new is the notion that today the economy began to incorporate not only the technology, but the entire mechanism of knowledge generation, i.e. knowledge economy, that according to economists’ findings, comprises not only the production economy but universities, fundamental science itself, communication systems, the patent system, the applied science, research and development, forming a cumulative complex . In other words, economy contains knowledge which is of higher-priority in any field. It is important to emphasize that in the above mentioned establishments, research and teaching faculty plays a privileged role as they are knowledge carriers. A higher educational establishment is the environment which accumulates, translates the existing knowledge, thus creating new knowledge (or brining about new ideas). The quality of knowledge provided by an educational establishment depends on the proficiency level of its staff.
It is known that any activity is a specific human form of active attitude to the world around. V. Semychenko underlines that in psychology the activity is defined as “the process of human work aimed at achieving consciously set goals. The goals themselves are defined as one’s immediate interests and needs, or the requirements of the society, the state or a particular organization” [12, p. 3]. Generally, the definition of the category of "activity" reveals the “subject – object” relationship. In a wide sense, an individual (society) is viewed as the subject of any activity while the object is its subject matter. It is the activity process that carries out subjective-object reflection (the subject of activity), and next to it the transformation of the object into its product according to the subjective aim . An activity is the process of a subject’s action that corresponds to the motive; the effort that corresponds to a particular purpose and the operation which, in its turn, conforms to conditions under which it occurs (V. Davydov, O. Leontiev ). Thus, V. Slastyonin defines the subject as “a person who consciously learns and transforms the world around, having will and ability to act intentionally” [14, p. 33]. First of all, the subject of activity is a personality. K. Abulkhanova-Slavska considering mechanisms of personality formation within the action-communication domain, emphasizes that personality formation of the activity subject occurs both in the process of mastering social and historical forms of activity, and in the organizational process . Organization itself foresees the use of administrative and self-administrative processes. Personality organization of one’s activity presupposes one’s mobilization, as well as coordinating one’s activity(ies) with the activity requirements, conforming to the activity of others. These points form the most important characteristics of an individual as the subject of activity. They identify a personalized way of activity regulation, as well as psychological qualities, necessary for its implementation .
An individual as the activity subject who exists in a self-regulation process that “ensures the actualization of one’s brainpower, compensation of shortcomings, regulation of individual states according to the tasks and activity unfolding” [1, p. 158]. Self-regulation is a person’s ability to perceive the ultimate activity goal, finding the best ways of its independent achievement and implementation .The result of self-regulation is the development of single mindedness, self-discipline, self-control. Self-regulation has a definite structure, common to all activities, it consists of the following components: the purpose of activity, the model of relevant conditions, the activity program, final evaluation and correction of the accomplished results (O. Konopkin ).
Thus, self-regulation is the ability of an individual to create an activity program and manage one’s actions and abilities on its basis. Self-regulation is the highest level of activity when the ability to perform training operations is converted into skills, and their sequence is accomplished automatically. Under a self-regulation mode the leading factors do not influence the controlled system from the outside, but emerge spontaneously within it.
Scientists consider various aspects of activity. Thus, S. Rubinshtein, describing the activity structure, emphasizes that it comprises the following elements: motive – aim – means – a social situation – results estimation . O. Leontyev believes that major activity determinants are as follows: motive − aim – condition; these components, in their turn, structure corresponding levels: the activity, actions and operations .
In the context of educational activity analysis researchers use the following component set: need − motive − task – mode of operation. Taking into consideration that different components have different functions at various activity levels, as well as actions and operations, to analyze a mental activity type G. Shchedrovytskyy uses a multy-component structure: aim − task – source/material − means − method − procedure − product . With the account taken of the above-mentioned, it is possible to determine the structure of an educationalist activity as such: needs − aim − task – mode of operation − procedure − result. This structure has both a systemic and cyclical character. Thus, the activity is the end result of personality activity in any professional field, especially in higher educational establishments.
A professional activity is a major component of one’s profession, which in society terms is viewed as a system of professional tasks, forms and types of professional activity, proficiency of an individual, ensuring the satisfaction of society’s required results.
Research of organizational and professional activity comprises the scope of academic staff educational work. Let us consider the specifics of these activities. The concept of “educational activity” is holistically viewed in research literature. It is common knowledge, that any educational activity differs from other types of work due to its objects, purposes and means. It combines two activity types: that of a teacher who organizes and supervises the process of learning and that of a learner who is studying, who has to grasp this knowledge, transform and master it. Therefore, unlike the “subject – object” relationship type traditional for various activity modes, in education, predominates the “subject – subject” relational type. Encyclopedia of Education defines “an educational activity” as “a complex organized interrelated system of activity, including: teachers’ practical activities related to teaching and education of an individual; the methodical activity of specialists teaching pedagogics to the academic staff of various institutions; management activity of principals, as well as scientific, educational and research work” [3, p. 640]. It is clear that, the latest interpretation of educational activity is wider as it includes not only teaching and educational activities, but also a scientific one, which fully discloses the essence of English language teachers’ activity at higher educational establishments. Therefore, we believe that it is the research component that reveals the scientific nature of any educational activity, bringing to the fore its dual scientifical and educational character.
It is generally acknowledged that higher educational establishment research and teaching staff, especially teachers of English, work as researchers, theorists and practitioners, supervising a students’ research group, acting as psychologists-educators, managers of educational and cognitive activity of students. In higher educational establishments research and teaching activities are the activities aimed at training highly qualified specialists capable of finding their place in the labor market, who are actively involved in political, social, cultural and other spheres of life . A. Kuzminskiy notes that teachers of higher schools are the members of basic social and professional groups whom the society entrusted an extremely important task: ensuring and enhancing the cultural heritage of a given society and civilization as a whole, as well as individual socialization at an important stage of its formation connected with one’s professional training. The process of higher education specialist training is a multifaceted system, the main features of which are: a) the generation of knowledge – through scientific research, its implementation in practice, expert opinion elaboration, new subject matter introduction and implementation, as well as educational programs methodological support; b) transfer of knowledge – through teaching process in a variety of forms, methods, means and educational technologies; c) dissemination of knowledge, – by way of textbooks, monographs, articles publication; public appearance, at meetings and conferences participation in scientific, educational and cultural activities at different levels .
M. Fitsula believes that a teacher’s activity structure is of two-aspect character. The first aspect involves the interconnection of knowledge and skills: special (theoretical knowledge of science and one’s practical ability to apply it in a definite educational activity), pedagogical (knowledge of higher school didactics, educational theory, awareness of main higher school educational and teaching goals, professional data diagnosis of a future specialist, prediction of his/her professional growth), psychological (knowledge of psychological foundations of the subjects taught, that of mental states of students and a teacher, age peculiarities as well as individual characteristics of students' perception of the content studied), methodical (knowledge of the ways, methods, techniques and means of making students aware of the taught research information). The second component of teaching methods structure comprises the constructive, organizational, mobile, communicative, developmental, information oriented research and epistemological activity that involves proficiency of a teacher . Thus, the researchers emphasize some active principles of an educationalist’s work, defining its main components, which form the basis of teachers’ professionalism, and an English language teacher, too.
Teachers’ professional competence is closely connected with one’s creativity and is determined by one’s subject mastery. Master-teacher is a highly competent specialist in psychological, pedagogical as well as in one’s subject area. A. Kuzminskiy defines professional competence of a teacher as well as a distinctive individual feature, formed in the process of the educational activity, which presuppose the highest level of educational work efficiency [7, p. 36]. This interpretation personifies one’s professional activity and determines the essential part of an individual in the process of acquiring professional competence. Thus, higher school teacher professionalism is viewed as a manifestation of the highest level of professional research and educational activity, based on the professional and personal qualities as well as formative cultural factors of a personality. It is also necessary to note that the level of teacher’s professionalism depends on his/her competence, the level of professional and pedagogical thinking development and on their research and teaching activity culture.
In our opinion, it is the professional development that brings to the fore uniqueness and integrity to those individuals who seek self-improvement. Continuous self-improvement is the basis of professional activity of an English language teacher.
The professional activity in an education field is a system formation, having its own hierarchy or structural levels, emerging as a result of extending aims and activity objects scale accompanied by an increasing complexity of professional functions and the reflection level, necessary for their fulfillment. Reflexivity is a characteristic feature of an individual, which affects one’s professional competence and assists in fulfilling any activity successfully, streamlining mental processes, organizing and managing them.
Considering the above-mentioned, it is possible to single out the main components of functionally action-oriented professional activity of English language teachers in a higher educational establishment. The functions determine the leading components of an educational activity: subject research oriented ones, teaching oriented, cultural and educational components. It is reasonable to draw attention to the research qualification requirements to professional activity of research and teaching staff . The project authors highlighted certain component basis of a professional activity, namely those aspects focusing on professional functions of a teacher (the first block − epistemological, constructive, organizational, communicative), based on the vertical cut of the research and educational activity structure (the second one – integral-oriented, target motivation-oriented, planning and prediction, organizational and administrative, control and analysis as well correction, generalization and research) and the elements formed on the horizontal cut of the research and educational activity structure (knowledge oriented ones: general and specific knowledge; activity-oriented ones: abilities, skills, habits). Upon joining the view of the authors mentioned above, we become aware that the second and third group of the above discussed components can determine the foundation of educational and research activity of a higher educational establishment teacher. The second group precisely describes the functional characteristics of professional activities of an English teacher in a concise way, while the third one gives the understanding of qualificational components of educational and research activities of teachers that form the professional basis of their activity. Meanwhile, reflexivity provides self-control, self-knowledge, self-examination, self-evaluation, self-awareness, self-development.
Accordingly, we have developed and tested a qualimetric model of an English teacher professional development, the components of which are: the analysis of English teacher requirements by function, defining the goals of one’s professional development depending on activity content, education with the account taken of goals set, plan development and its effective application, educational and research activity effectiveness. Proceeding from the conception of a higher educational establishment academic / research worker activity peculiarities a set of competence-based proficiency parameters, the key (multidimentional), general-profiled ones as well as specific competences has been worked out to determine the content of English teachers professional development.
The first competence level is general for the entire faculty, especially English teachers, and contains the key (multidisciplinary) competences: socio-personalized, general-cultural, health protecting; it takes into account individual qualities (moral, civic), general and professional culture of communication, willingness and ability to improve self-educational skills as well as self-development. The activity processes provide the foundation of key competencies and are revealed in the structure context of the educational activity. The second level comprises general profiled competences. General-profiled competencies are typical of a definite group of professionals who share a certain activity. In our case, it is research and teaching staff. General-profiled competence is determined by cognitive, activity competence as well as professional and psychological positions and attitudes of research and teaching staff. All faculty members as well as research workers have to master similar competences to become general-profiled competent. The third level of competencies includes the specific ones. This competence type consists of several specific competencies in a certain specialization area, upon gaining them, a specialist is able to apply specific professional knowledge and skills in one’s professional activity.
An English teacher’s level of linguistic and communicative competence mastery is estimated on the third level, as well as one’s modern technology proficiency and the ability of class facilitation. The knowledge of and expertise in the theoretical and methodological fundamentals of teaching English are evaluated, too. Methods and techniques of forming and upgrading skills at all forms of speech activity as well as skills in evaluating students’ accomplishments in English to meet present-day English requirements, etc., are also evaluated here. The following factors determine the academics / English teachers’ work efficiency, in particular: the level of specialized area proficiency, educational, research, cultural-educational activity. The above-mentioned activities are confirmed by documents analysis, certificates availability, awards and rewards given, merit certificates presented and as well as methodical and research accomplishments, such as (portfolio, publications, manuals, etc.); successful prolific educational work is also a reflection of teachers’ academic activity (active participation in research and education events, etc.).
The professional level of English teachers at the department of foreign languages of KhNU of Economics has undergone a 9% increase due to the above-discussed singled out criteria. We believe that the presented English teachers’ professional activity description provides a definite generalized view of the content of research and teaching staff professional development, since it is multidisciplinary in nature, with the account taken of the diversity of everyday activity in the taught areas of specialization. The provided structure allows us not only expand but also specify any area of research and teaching staff professional activity.
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