The Pre-modern Era
Ancient massive construction projects
- Egyptian pyramids
- Great Wall of China
Michelangelo, the manager.
Adam Smith’s Contribution To The Field Of Management
Wrote the Wealth of Nations (1776)
- Advocated the economic advantages that organizations and society would reap from the division of labor:
- Increased productivity by increasing each worker’s skill and dexterity.
- Time saved that is commonly lost in changing tasks.
- The creation of labor-saving inventions and machinery.
The Industrial Revolution’s Influence On Management Practices
- Machine power began to substitute for human power
- Lead to mass production of economical goods
- Improved and less costly transportation systems became available
- Created larger markets for goods.
- Larger organizations developed to serve larger markets
- Created the need for formalized management practices.
- The term used to describe the hypotheses of the scientific management theorists and the general administrative theorists.
- Scientific management theorists
- Fredrick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry Gantt
- General administrative theorists
- Henri Fayol and Max Weber
Frederick W. Taylor
- The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
- Advocated the use of the scientific method to define the “one best way” for a job to be done
- Believed that increased efficiency could be achieved by selecting the right people for the job and training them to do it precisely in the one best way.
- To motivate workers, he favored incentive wage plans.
- Separated managerial work from operative work.
Scientific Management Contributors
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
- Bricklaying efficiency improvements
- Time and motion studies (therbligs)
- Incentive compensation systems
- Gantt chart for scheduling work operations
General Administrative Theory
General administrative theorists
- Writers who developed general theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management practice
- Henri Fayol (France)
- Fourteen Principles of Management: Fundamental or universal principles of management practice
- Max Weber (Germany)
- Bureaucracy: Ideal type of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships
Human Resources Approach
- Scottish businessman and reformer who advocated for better treatment of workers.
- Claimed that a concern for employees was profitable for management and would relieve human misery.
- Created the field of industrial psychology—the scientific study of individuals at work to maximize their productivity and adjustment.
- Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913)
Human Resources Approach
Mary Parker Follett
- Recognized that organizations could be viewed from the perspective of individual and group behavior.
- Believed that individual potential could only be released by group association.
- Saw organizations as social systems that require human interaction and cooperation.
- Expressed his views on the “acceptance of authority” in his book The Functions of the Executive (1938).
A series of studies done during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insights into group norms and behaviors
- Hawthorne effect
- Social norms or standards of the group are the key determinants of individual work behavior.
Changed the prevalent view of the time that people were no different than machines.
Human Relations Movement
Based on a belief in the importance of employee satisfaction—a satisfied worker was believed to be a productive worker.
Advocates believed in people’s capabilities and were concerned with making management practices more humane.
- Dale Carnegie
- Abraham Maslow
- Douglas McGregor
The Quantitative Approach
Operations Research (Management Science)
- Evolved out of the development of mathematical and statistical solutions to military problems during World War II.
- Involves the use of statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations to improve management decision making for planning and control.
Social Events That Shaped Management Approaches
- The desire for increased efficiency of labor intensive operations
Human resources approach
- The backlash to the overly mechanistic view of employees held by the classicists.
- The Great Depression.
The quantitative approaches
What is the Process Approach?
Management theory jungle (Harold Koontz)
- The diversity of approaches to the study of management—functions, quantitative emphasis, human relations approaches—each offer something to management theory, but many are only managerial tools.
- Planning, leading, and controlling activities are circular and continuous functions of management.
The Systems Approach
Defines a system as a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole
Closed system : a system that is not influenced by and does not interact with its environment
Open system: a system that dynamically interacts with its environment
Stakeholders: any group that is affected by organizational decisions and policies
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objects -> Chapter 9 Consciousness
objects -> Chapter 19: Death and Dying Development Across the Lifespan
objects -> Emotions are useful because they help people adapt to their environments
wps -> Anexo al reglamento de tarjeta de crédito banco de bogotá S. A. Reglamento beneficios tarjeta crédito banco de bogotá latam pass Primero
wps -> How to Demolish Racism1 Michael Haas
wps -> Orion the hunter wphs science
wps -> Working paper
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