The period after wwii marked the final collapse of European imperialism

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The period after WWII marked the final collapse of European imperialism.

In Africa, independence was achieved both through peaceful efforts & through bloody conflicts.

In South Africa, years of racial segregation ended & black South Africans gained a voice in government.
A movement called Pan-Africanism-the unity of Africans & people of African descent all over the world had been nourishing nationalist movements in Africa since the 1920s.

A few African nations achieved independence before 1945, most gained independence after WWII.

-many Africans fought in WWIIresented returning home to second-class citizenship

For nearly 350 years Europeans ruled South Africa

-although South Africa won independence from Britain in 1910 only its white citizens held political power

-in 1948 a system of


-separation of the races was made official

white South Africans control the nation’s government & economy

-black South Africans and other nonwhites

*lived in certain zones-kicked off their own landforced to live on crowded reserves

*used segregated public facilities & transportation

*forbid interracial marriage *had to carry ID cards

*forced off the best land *restrictions on travel

*not allowed to grow most profitable crops

forced to grow cash crops not producing enough food famine

*better paying jobs in mines went to whites onlyleft blacks with low-pay, less-skilled work

*not allowed to vote

1912-educated Africans organize a political party-

African National Congres ANC

-to oppose apartheid the ANC used

*legal means to protest unjust laws that restrict the freedom of black S. Africans

*violence *non-violent civil disobedience *boycotts

1960-demonstration in Sharpeville-police killed 69 people & wounded 180

South African government reacted by outlawing the ANC


Nelson Mandela

-important ANC leader sentenced to life in prison

became a powerful symbol of the struggle for freedom

1976-in Soweto township thousands of students peacefully protest

the South African police respond with force

the accounts of how many people died vary from 200 to 600

-the original government figure claimed only 23 students were killed

-the number of wounded was estimated to be over a thousand men, women, and children

The Soweto Uprising was a turning point in the liberation struggle in South Africa

-many white South African citizens were outraged at the government's actions in Soweto

about 300 white students from the University of the Witwatersrand marched through

Johannesburg's city centre in protest of the killing of children

black workers went on strike as well and joined them as the campaign progressed

riots also broke out in the black townships of other cities in South Africa

June 16th is now a public holiday called Youth Day in South Africa

in remembrance of the events in 1976

Desmond Tutu

-black Anglican bishop & civil rights leader along with other activists convinced foreign nations & businesses to

limit trade & investment in segregated S. Afric


over time these nonviolent means of protest had a strong effect


F.W. de Klerk

became president of South Africa

-he knew reform was necessary

he legalized the ANC

repealed segregation laws

released Mandela from jail in 1990

1994-South Africa held an election in which people of all races could vote

Mandela was elected president

The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission TRC was set up by

the new South African government

-help deal with the violence & human rights abuses which occurred under apartheid

-discover & reveal past wrongdoing by the government in the hope of resolving conflict

left over from the period of apartheid

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