1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ... 14

359. The resources required for funding the general health scheme, which is a responsibility of ISSS, are provided basically by contributions from employers, workers and the State. However, there other sources of funding: the interest and other income from investment of the reserves; revenue from fines and other legal sanctions; and the contributions of holders of ISSS and INPEP incapacity, old-age and widows/widowers pensions.


360. The total contribution rate of employers, workers and the State was set at 3.5 per cent from 1969 to 1997 (workers - one per cent; employers - two per cent; and the State - 0.5 per cent). Since the beginning of operations following the reform they have moved as follows in percentage terms:

361. The minimum and maximum remuneration subject to contributions is as follows: (a) the minimum legal wage fixed in May 1998 in the amount of 42 colones ($4.80), equivalent to $144 a month; and (b) the maximum remuneration fixed by the Office of the Superintendent of Pensions for 2001 in the amount of 39,392 colones ($4,501) a month.


362. The INPEP contribution rates have evolved as follows:

Employees of the public administration

(percentages)

Public-system teaching staff

(percentages)

363. The IPSFA percentage contribution rates are as follows:


J. Article 10


Paragraph 34 of the guidelines


364. Attention is drawn in this regard to El Salvador’s comments on articles 17, 23 and 24 in its consolidated periodic report under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR/C/SLV/2002/3 dated 8 July 2002) and to the sections of its three CEDAW reports (CEDAW/C/SLV/3-4 dated 19 October 2001; CEDAW/C/SLV/5 dated 19 October 2001; and CEDAW/C/SLV/6 dated 25 November 2002) relating to the topics addressed in this article of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; those comments are still valid.
365. Attention is likewise drawn to the information contained in El Salvador’s second periodic report under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC/C/65/Add.25 dated 10 July 2002).

Paragraph 35 of the guidelines


366. The Constitution acknowledges the family as the foundation of society and prescribes that it shall be protected by the State. The Family Code addresses the fundamental principle of the protection of the family and stipulates that the State has an obligation to protect the family by promoting its integration, welfare and social, cultural and economic development. The Code establishes as the guiding principles family unity, the equality of rights of men and women, the equality of rights of children, the comprehensive protection of minors, the disabled, the elderly, and mothers when they are solely responsible for the household.
367. Marriage is the legal foundation of the family and is defined as a union constituted by the free and mutual consent of the partners, which is rendered complete when they manifest it before the competent authorities. The officials authorized to legalize marriages are the Notaries of the Republic, the Prosecutor-General of the Republic and the auxiliary departmental prosecutors, the Attorney-General of the Republic and the auxiliary attorneys in their respective jurisdictions; marriage ceremonies are conducted free of charge, a circumstance which encourages couples to marry. Political governors of departments and municipal mayors are also empowered to conduct marriage ceremonies.
368. The Family Code defines marriage as the legal union of a man and a woman contracted by a couple in order to establish a full and permanent life together.
369. Heads of diplomatic missions when there is no consular officer and consular officers themselves (consuls general, consuls and vice-consuls) are empowered to legalize marriages in the places to which they are accredited, but only between Salvadorans; El Salvador thus guarantees the exercise of the right of fit persons to found a family, not only within the framework of marriage, for which ample provision is made, but also in common-law unions, which, while not assimilated to legal marriages, are recognized for the purposes of regulating certain reciprocal rights and duties of the couple on the basis of article 33 of the Constitution and in view of the fact of life that free or common-law marriages are on the increase.
370. According to the reports on the work of the Office of the Prosecutor-General, in the last five-year period from 1997 to 2002 the Office conducted free of charge 2,615 marriages: (a) from June 1997 to May 1998 - 444; (b) from June 1998 to May 1999 - 700; (c) from June 1999 to May 2000 - 509; (d) from June 2000 to May 2001 - 582; and (e) from June 2001 to May 2002 -380.

Paragraph 36 of the guidelines


371. Since puberty and adolescence are matters of a child’s degree of social, psychological and cultural maturity, and in accordance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Family Code sets 18 years as the age of majority; children acquire the full exercise of their rights at that age.
372. The family bears the chief responsibility for the protection of its children, for it is the natural and most suitable environment for the normal development of their personalities; society and the State take on some of this responsibility when the family does not provide adequate protection. The State must furnish families with sufficient assistance for them to perform their functions with regard to the exercise by children of their established rights (Family Code, art. 347).
373. All children are entitled to: (a) protection against all forms of physical, mental or moral harm or abuse, neglect, ill treatment, torture, and cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment; (b) a sufficiently high standard of living for their physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development; and (c) access to the highest possible standards of health and other services for treatment of illness and for rehabilitation (art. 351).
374. Children’s lives and health are protected by means of an array of legal, social, preventive and assistance measures designed to secure their comprehensive development from conception to the age of majority (art. 353).
375. The Salvadoran Institute for the Integrated Development of the Child (ISNA) is the lead agency for the provision of care at the national level; it coordinates the activities of the various institutions working with children with a view to application of the policies for children; it is also responsible for implementing the administrative measures for the protection of the rights of children under threat or having suffered infringement of their rights.
376. In order to achieve its objectives more effectively ISNA coordinates with local and international agencies the management of the additional resources provided to improve the measures for children.

Paragraph 37 of the guidelines


377. See paragraphs 366-370 of this report.
378. The National Secretariat for the Family (SNF) encourages, promotes and facilitates ways and means of fostering the unity and sustainable development of the family and its members; in order to provide adequate care and developmental stimulus of the family group it works with other public institutions, such as ISNA, ISDEMU, the National Council on the Integrated Care of the Disabled (CONAIPD), the National Mental Health Council (CNSM) and the National Council on the Integrated Care of the Elderly (CONAIPAM).
379. SNF manages national and international resources to support the implementation of its programmes and it coordinates the voluntary activities of agencies working in the community.
380. It is acknowledged that, as in other countries, the traditional concept of the family has changed; in the case of El Salvador such changes have also been produced by the armed conflict which afflicted the country for 12 years, migration and the increasing number of women going out to work. This new situation constitutes a challenge, and the State has endeavoured to formulate policies to strengthen the family and the moral and ethical values which sustain it, to improve access to education, health, culture, recreation, sports and employment, to reinforce the inter-institutional coordination of the programmes to prevent and deal with domestic violence, and to furnish better opportunities for the development of women, including training programmes.

Paragraph 38 of the guidelines


381. The provision of maternity is prescribed by law. The relevant precepts of the Constitution are developed in the Labour Code, which establishes principles for the protection of pregnant women, such as job stability: summary dismissal or dismissal with notice does not terminate the labour contract.
382. Poor women have access to the health system in any national or public hospital or health post or, failing that, they may call on the services of midwives trained by the Health Ministry.
383. The total length of maternity leave (before and after confinement) is 12 weeks.
384. Pregnant women are protected by the social security system and may obtain benefits in addition to the ones accorded under the Labour Code, including medical attendance at the birth itself, as well as surgery and pharmaceutical, dental, hospital and laboratory services before and after confinement; they are also entitled to a daily maternity allowance in respect of temporary incapacity to work equal to 75 per cent of their average base remuneration, as well as assistance with feeding supplements for the child in cash or kind and a set of clothes and utensils for the new-born baby known as the maternity basket (Labour Code, arts 113 and 309; Social Security Act, art. 59 and elsewhere; Regulations on the Application of the Social Security System,
art. 23 et seq.).

Paragraph 39 of the guidelines


385. Article 34 of the Constitution states: “All children have the right to live in family and environmental circumstances which foster their comprehensive development, for which purpose they shall enjoy the protection of the State. The law shall prescribe the duties of the State and create institutions for the protection of mothers and children.”
386. Article 2 of the Statute of ISNA states: “The purpose of the Institute is to implement and monitor the National Policy on Children throughout the national territory and to provide comprehensive protection.”
387. Children’s rights are protected and defended by agencies such as the Office of the Prosecutor-General of the Republic, which furnishes legal assistance, and ISNA, which also registers, certifies and monitors NGOs working for the protection and care of children, including non-profit organizations authorized by the State to obtain the necessary legal personality for working with children.
388. Pursuant article 376 of the Family Code, children aged under 18 but over 14 may work, subject to the regulations contained in the Labour Code, provided that their education rights are not affected.
389. Article 114.2 of the Labour Code authorizes children to work from age 12, provided that their tasks consist of light work which is not (a) likely to impair their health or development or (b) of such a kind as to affect their school attendance, their participation in programmes run by competent authorities, or their utilization of the education which they receive.
390. While it is true that El Salvador has legislation providing protection for children, it is equally true that the economic circumstances of most poor Salvadoran families mean that in some cases children are obliged to work by their own parents, and in other cases out of necessity, in order to help their parents and siblings; this undoubtedly causes social and economic problems for children who have to give up school in order to work to survive.
391. There are many children lacking protection, in both rural and urban areas: for example, children working on farms, in the informal sector or in the street.
392. The following rules must be observed in the cases when children are authorized to work: (a) their developing personalities must be respected; (b) they must receive appropriate work training; (c) work by children aged under 14 must be limited to half the ordinary working day; and (d) they must have medical checks at least once a year to determine whether their work is impairing their health or normal development. To this end, children’s work is supervized by the Ministry of Labour and Social Security and by ISNA (Family Code, art. 380). These two bodies have an obligation to provide special training programmes for children.
393. The Labour Code provides that children aged under 16 may not work, in any activity, more than six hours a day (34 hours a week). They may not work more than two hours overtime in any one day or perform work requiring great physical effort. Children aged under 18 may not perform night work (art. 116) or be recruited for work before undergoing a detailed medical examination to declare them fit to perform the work in question (art. 117.2).
394. All of these rules are consistent with El Salvador’s commitments under the ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No 138).

Age groups and sex of working children11


395. The work identified as not suitable for children includes: (1) refuse collection; (2) fishing; (3) manufacture of fireworks; (4) sugar-cane cultivation and processing; and (5) activities involving sexual exploitation.

13


396. The number of children engaged in various forms of child labour in El Salvador is estimated at 25,000.

14


397. With a view to eliminating child labour, ISNA is carrying out institutional and inter-institutional programmes and activities with an estimated coverage of 5,835 children.
398. The projects implemented by ISNA to provide protection and assistance for working children

15

include:
– Baseline study to obtain specific data on the beneficiary children (number, ages, addresses, schooling, family details, etc.) and their relationship to the mode of work in question. This study also describes and analyzes the children’s employment in terms of hours worked, remuneration, and effects on their physical, mental and moral integrity;
– Social protection and/or education and awareness: this component establishes measures relating to the schooling of the beneficiary children, with emphasis on the integration of children who do not attend school and improvement of the teaching of the various academic subjects, with a view to persuading children to remain in school and eliminating drop-outs or reducing the rate. The children and the schools are furnished with material assistance (equipment and uniforms for the children, and teaching materials for the schools). With regard to health care, some facilities are provided directly, and prevention and treatment (including mental health) measures are coordinated with various other institutions. This component also includes recreational and sports activities as essential elements of a child’s development.
– Alternative production activities to provide support for parents, female heads of family, and other persons responsible for working children through the provision of loans, training in loan management and/or job training and skills; all these activities are backed up by advice on how to manage money.
– A monitoring component, under which project execution is supervised and evaluated.
399. ISNA has programmes of residential care, such as its foster-homes and adoption programmes, which provide children with a family in which they will receive comprehensive support in all its aspects. It provided residential care for 2,261 children between 1999 and mid 2003, as described in the following table.

400. ISNA provides guidance and support with respect to social and family matters for as long as it deems necessary to ensure that children receive comprehensive care and protection in their family and normal environment when their rights are threatened or violated by their parents or guardians or other persons responsible for them or their social environment. This guidance and support covers problems of children’s physical, mental and social development, as well as their enrolment in State or community care and treatment programmes (ISNA Act, art. 46).


401. After periods of care away from home children are returned to their parents, guardians or other persons in whose care they had been previously, provided that the moral, psychological and social environment will ensure the children’s protection and education. When ISNA regards it as necessary and appropriate in a child’s best interests, it may agree to the child’s return under supervision provided that the family receives psychological and social counselling for at least six months. The officials responsible for such supervision are selected by preference from among social workers, teachers and other persons with knowledge and experience of children’s problems (art. 48).
402. Family placement means placing a child in the care of members of the immediate family or other close relations, in the absence of parents, guardians or other responsible persons or when they cannot offer sufficient guarantees of care and protection. The same action is taken when the threat to or violation of a child’s rights is a serious one and caused by a person having the child in his or her care. Before a child is placed in this way, the moral, environmental, psychological and social background must be investigated and evaluated in order to ensure that the child’s education and protection will be guaranteed. This measure is subject to periodic checks for at least six months.
403. Placement in a foster home means entrusting a child to a family which undertakes to provide comprehensive protection. This measure is frequently used in the case of orphans without families and children who have families but whose parents or relatives cannot offer sufficient guarantees of care and protection. Foster families must be headed by a united couple who are married or living in a stable relationship, have acknowledged moral probity and economic solvency, and are willing to offer a child love and a family environment which will facilitate his or her normal development. Persons wishing to become foster parents have to be investigated and evaluated to determine whether they satisfy the requirements of the law. In no case may a child be placed with a foster family living abroad. A child placed in a foster home may not be passed on to another family without authorization by ISNA. This measure is subject to supervision for one year (art. 50).
404. The protection measure of placement in an institution is used by ISNA in exceptional cases. It means placement in a children’s home appropriate to the child’s age, personality and sex for the purpose of education, acquisition of a skill or occupation, specialized rehabilitation treatment, and provision of comprehensive care. This measure is used when a child is growing up in a family environment which is unsuitable or non-existent in terms of the child’s integrated development. ISNA places children in institutions as full-time or part-time boarders, as appropriate (art. 51).
405. If an investigation establishes that a child is an orphan or of unknown parents and therefore has to be placed in an institution for longer than six months, he or she is considered for adoption; the Office of the Prosecutor-General is so informed so that it may proceed with the necessary formalities (art. 53).
406. Measures for the protection of children are applied for as long as may be necessary but cease for all legal purposes when a child reaches the age of 18; in any event, the duration of the measures depends on the studies conducted and on their findings but they must be reviewed every six months (art. 54).
407. ISNA informs children of their rights by means of a number of projects and programmes designed to have a positive impact on the development of a culture of peace.
408. The implementation of the “Prevention of student violence” project in 2001, whose purpose was to create spaces for participation by children and young people in their places of education, facilitated: (a) coordination with officials of the Division for Life of the Ministry of Education with a view to implementing the project in the places of education with the highest rates of student violence; (b) the establishment of the project in 12 education institutions; and (c) the identification and training of 500 young leaders as facilitators in education institutions with a view to improving relations and encouraging tolerance.
409. The following results were achieved in 2002: (a) 1,051 students and pupils received information about the rights of the child and human values and counselling in sexual matters, and 400 students at the Francisco Morazán Institute were given guidance on how to prevent student violence, in the expectation that they would have a multiplier effect on their fellow students; (b) 11 students taking social-service courses at the El Salvador and Cristiana de las Asambleas teacher-training universities collaborated in the implementation of the prevention project; (c) 1,000 parents received instruction in family relations, self-esteem, and communication in the home in parents’ classes in four schools; (d) 200 teachers acquired expert knowledge of the project and collaborated in its implementation; and (e) 9,407 students and pupils benefited from the multiplier effect, learning about the rights of the child, human values, prevention of student violence, etc.
410. The Office of the Mayor of San Salvador and Nueva San Salvador, the National Civil Police, the Olympics Committee of El Salvador, and the Nueva San Salvador health unit worked together on the organization of: (a) two student hikes, one up the Cerro de Guazapa and other up the Boquerón (San Salvador volcano); (b) a traditional games festival; and (c) an Olympics Day run, in which 6,352 children, young people and adults took part.
411. Still within the context of disseminating information about children’s rights, the País Joven (Young Country) programme was designed with the aim of improving institutional coordination in the governmental, municipal and private sectors, establishing programmes with gender-equity components, and carrying out preventive measures to publicize children’s rights and duties.
412. The institutions participating in the País Joven programme include: the Ministry of Education, ISNA, the Office of the Procurator for the Protection of Human Rights, the Human Rights Institute of the José Simeón Cañas University of Central America; the Yekineme Welfare Association; the Office of the Attorney-General of the Republic; and a number of universities.

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The Pensions Savings Scheme (SAP) - El Salvador

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The Pensions Savings Scheme (SAP)


355. The SAP covers all workers in the private, public and municipal sectors whose contributions are intended for capitalization in a personal pensions savings account, which entitles them to the award and payment of old-age, ordinary incapacity and survivors’ benefits.
356. Pursuant to the provisions of the SAP Act, the incorporation of new members in the INPEP schemes was completed in 1999; the contributors who transferred to the SAP were issued with certificates of transfer which recognized periods of contribution to the institutions of the public pensions system up to the date of transfer. These certificates were issued either by ISSS or by INPEP, depending on the institution to which the last contribution was made; the employment history of the former contributors was taken as the basis for the issuance of the certificates.
357. As of September 2002, the SAP had 27,898 members, representing 2.8 per cent of all insured persons.

Contribution rates by institution


358. Under the SAP the workers’ contributions include the commission paid to the pension fund administrator (AFP) in respect of the management of their personal accounts and payment of the group incapacity and survivors’ insurance premium.

Rates of contribution to SAP

(percentages applied to base contributory remuneration)



Workers

Employers

Total

1998

4.50

5.00

9.50

2002

6.25

6.75

13.00

Year

Employers

Workers

Total

1998

5.00

4.50

9.50

1999

5.50

5.50

11.00

2000

6.00

6.00

12.00

2001

6.50

6.50

13.00

2002

7.00

7.00

14.00

Year

Employers

Employees

Total

1998

4.50

4.50

9.00

1999

5.00

5.00

10.00

2000

5.50

5.50

11.00

2001

6.00

6.00

12.00

2002

6.50

6.50

13.00

2003

7.00

7.00

14.00

Year

Employers

Employees

Total

1998

6.00

6.00

12.00

1999

6.50

6.50

13.00

2000 onwards

7.00

7.00

14.00

Benefit

Member’s contribution

Employer’s contribution

Total

Pension

6,0

6,0

12,0

Retirement fund

3,0

3,0

6,0

Life insurance

0,5

1,5

2,0

Rehabilitation

1,0

1,0

2,0

Total

10,5

11,5

22,0

Age group

Boys

Girls

Total

10-14

67 857

29 463

97 320

15-18

12



147 437

68 356

215 793

Total

215 294

97 819

313 113

Year of entry or re-entry

Releases

Housed in ISNA or NGO facilities

Annual total

1999

418

84

502

2000

450

142

595

2001

291

248

539

2002

250

363

613

2003

--

15

15

Total

1 409

852

2 261
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